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Global Gospel: Gospel Music For Dealing With Hardship – Part II

Part I of this blog, including the introduction and the first six examples can be read here.


Don’t Give Up- Panam Percy Paul

Next is Panam Percy Paul (Bakulipanam Percy Paul Mokungah) out of Nigeria.  “Don’t Give Up” comes from his album Cheer Up that was released in 2013.  As the album’s title implies, all ten songs were written to encourage people going through hardship.  It is amazing to see that Panam produced such an album because he has had his fair share of tough times.  His father disowned him at age 19 and removed his name from his will because he made the decision to become a gospel musician instead of joining the Nigerian Army like his father.  Panam has also grieved the loss of his older brother.  Through it all, he has had a successful gospel career of over forty years.

Panam’s style is referred to as a mix of gospel and highlife.  Gospel highlife is the most popular style of gospel music in Ghana and throughout West Africa.  It emerged in the 1980s, and it features fast tempos and dancing, especially by women.  Highlife songs address numerous topics including praises to God, promoting morals, and condemning evil.  Gospel highlife music has had a huge influence on commercial music such as Panam Percy Paul’s.

“Don’t Give Up” is one of the slower songs on the album, but not in a way that drags.  Drums come in as the song builds.  The chords are simple and the texture of the music is light, both which make the song approachable for any listener going through a hard time.  The song is strophic in nature, so it would be a nice fit for congregational singing.  Backup singers join Panam on the chorus each time.  The song modulates a whole step for one more repetition of the chorus in a way that just lifts your spirits.

Panam introduces the song by saying: “It’s not time to give up now.  This is time to stand.”  We cannot move forward by sitting down.  Standing up is the first step to getting through a situation.  In the first verse, Panam encourages the listener by reminding them how strong they have been in the past.  Here in the present, with God’s help, we can overcome once again.  The chorus says: “Don’t give up.  It’s not over.  When you give up, then it’s over.  Hold on to the Lord, and trouble not your heart.  Even when you fail, it’s not over.”  When we decide to quit, the devil has won the battle.  God can help us to keep going.  Panam also references 1 Peter 1:7 in the second verse, assuring us that fire will make our faith as pure as gold.


Many Rivers To Cross/Going Down Jordan/Amen (Medley)- Soweto Gospel Choir

Next is the Soweto Gospel Choir out of South Africa.  This combination of songs appears on the choir’s 2005 album Voices from Heaven.  “Many Rivers to Cross” is initially a reggae song written and originally performed by Jimmy Cliff.  The song was released in 1969 on his self-titled album Jimmy Cliff.  Cliff wrote this song to bring attention to the emotional struggles he faced as a musician in England after moving from his home in Jamaica.  The “rivers” he mentions is the English Channel, and he also talks about the white cliffs of Dover, both of which he faced as he travelled across the continent to do shows.  Many sacred and secular covers of this song have been produced.  “Goin’ Down Jordan” is originally a calypso song written by Irving Burgie and Theophilus Woods.  It was written in 1961, and the song’s best known performer is Harry Belafonte.  And “Amen” is a traditional African-American spiritual most likely born in the context of 20th-century slaves having their own worship.

Though two soloists lead the songs, the choir is present throughout the medley as backup singers, and then everyone sings together for the ending along with some ad libbing.  Instruments used are piano, electric guitar, and drums.  The choir features bass singers in contrast to American gospel choirs where bass parts are rarely heard.  Even though reggae and calypso are Caribbean genres, the Soweto Gospel Choir is still successful in bringing a distinct African sound to the music.  The sound of African voices blending together to create harmony is like none other.

The choir’s medley starts with an instrumentation of a slow groove.  This immediately calms the listener and helps them forget about their worries for the time being.  The chords and harmony are simple, and the medley maintains a major tonality throughout.  As the music shifts to the second song, the key remains the same but a faster tempo immediately begins.  The rhythmic motives in the instruments shift as well.  There is a lot more syncopation as it begins to sound more like islander music.

The Jordan River has had multiple connotations in music.  In Charles Tindley’s hymn “Stand By Me”, “chilly Jordan” is referring to death.  In the spiritual “Roll, Jordan, Roll”, the Jordan river is a symbolic border between earth and heaven.  The reference to the Jordan River in “Going Down Jordan” seems to be similar.  Once we go down Jordan, keeping the faith to press on no matter whatever life brings us, we will be able to walk the heavenly road.  Most of the “mourning” in this song is performed a cappella to provide contrast, and it is driven by the basses to depict the low, gloomy nature of mourning.  The soloist sings flatted sevenths to emphasize this.

The faster tempo is maintained as the choir transitions to sing “Amen”.  “Amen”, mostly known as the last word of a prayer, means “truly” or “it is so”.  By placing “Amen” at the end of the medley, the choir is affirming what they just said about getting to walk the heavenly road.  The amens are accompanied by acclamations like “hallelujah” and “glory to Jesus”.  The order the songs appear in gives a nice progression lyrically.  The choir tells us that life gets hard and it will be that way as long as we are down here on earth.  But it is worth it because the journey we are on is preparing us to go to heaven, and that deserves an “amen”.


I Don’t Feel Noways Tired- Reverend James Cleveland and the New Jerusalem Baptist Church Choir

Now we are back in North America with “I Don’t Feel Noways Tired”.  This song was written by Curtis Burrell in 1978, and it was arranged and released by James Cleveland in the same year.  It is said to have been inspired by an elderly black woman.  She dealt with swollen feet and back pain daily as she walked a long, dusty, beat up road.  People hated her and mistreated her just because of who she was.  But she continued to walk that road because she had God on her side as her protector and liberator.  The song has similarities with songs that came before and after it.  The spiritual “I Am Seekin’ For A City” was published in 1917 and features the phrase “I don’t feel no ways tired” in the refrain.  There is a gospel song by Mary Mary called “Can’t Give Up Now” that was released in 2000.  The chorus of the song is almost exactly the same as Burrell’s except for the first line: “I just can’t give up now”.  It is considered a sample or cover of Burrell’s song.

“I Don’t Feel Noways Tired” is in a major key.  The melody falls mostly within the pentatonic scale, a concept that has roots in spirituals.  There are quite a few syncopated rhythms in the melody which bring out the soulfulness of the song.  There is quite a bit of vamping as the song goes on to portray the constant plea for Jesus to stay with us as we continue on the journey of life.  Changes in dynamics provide some variation when the choir vamps on “I don’t believe He brought me this far”.  The music builds back up as the choir returns to the chorus.  The recording fades as the choir continues to sing, showing the flexibility of a song’s length in gospel contexts.  The lyrics speak to the stress and fatigue and difficulty of life, but they also acknowledge that God has brought us through it all and that will not change going forward.

In James Cleveland’s performance, the choir is accompanied by piano, organ, bass, and drums.  It is standard for the piano to lead in gospel music, which is evident in this recording.  The rhythmic feel is a slow groove in a meter like 2/2.  While the piano provides an introduction to the song, James Cleveland emphasizes some of the lyrics in the song and encourages the audience on their journeys in doing so.  The choir comes in with a confident tone.  The melody of the words “I don’t feel no ways tired” ascends in the span of an octave which portrays a sign of hope.  There are multiple instances where the instruments cut out temporarily, which is a common feature in gospel music.  Cleveland encourages the audience to sing along with phrases like “Can you help us sing that” and saying respective lyrics before the entrances.  In the choir’s third repetition of the chorus, they start a vamp on the phrase “I don’t believe He brought me this far”.  The subtext of this is something like: “As I look back on my past, God was always with me.  Surely He will continue to be with me”.  Then the melody is slightly adapted as it becomes a prayer saying “Stay with me, Jesus.  Stay with me, Lord” and “Don’t leave me, Jesus.  Don’t leave me, Lord” as if to ease any doubts.


We Shall Overcome- The Savettes

“We Shall Overcome” began as a song in Baptist and Methodist congregations who sang the phrase “I’ll overcome, someday”.  The original author is unknown, but it was adapted by multiple musicians including Zilphia Horton, Guy Carawan, Pete Seeger and Frank Hamilton.  It was Pete Seeger who made the change from “will” to “shall”, and he also added additional verses to the song.  The song also takes roots from Charles Tindley’s hymn “I’ll Overcome Someday”.  “We Shall Overcome” was originally written sometime in the 1940s, but the version we know today emerged in 1963 in the South as a result of the Civil Rights movement.  The words were a response to the severity of racism, injustice, and struggling for equality.

“We Shall Overcome” is in a major key.  If it was in minor, any hope of overcoming would sound harder to believe.  The melody is mostly conjunct, which could signify the step-by-step pace it takes to accomplish this freedom.  This conjunct nature also makes the melody accessible and easy to retain.  The triplet in measure 7 adds to the soulfulness of the piece.  The lyrics give an example of gospel songs combining sacred and secular.  The secular aspect is dealing with the oppression of daily life, and the sacred aspect is putting hope in God.  The African-American Heritage Hymnal links this song to 1 John 5:4-5, a text referring to the fact that our faith will give us the victory in overcoming the world.

The Savettes are a gospel choir that was formed in the 1950s in Philadelphia.  Their recording of this song was released on vinyl in 1963, the same year it was made famous in the fight for justice.  The album is called I’ve Worked Too Hard.  The choir is accompanied by organ, piano, and drums.  The arrangement features hints of two other songs.  The arrangement starts with the spiritual “Listen to the Lambs”, a text made popular by R. Nathaniel Dett in the choral tradition.  The Savettes sing “Listen to the lambs all a-cryin’” as in the original text, bringing to light their own personal crying.  Then they sing: “What are they saying?  We shall overcome.”  Dett’s rendition goes on to talk about how God will lead His flock.  The Savettes’ transition is very similar, trusting and believing that God will lead His people to freedom.  As a soprano soloist sings the words of “We Shall Overcome”, the choir provides militaristic background singing with the words “we are marching”, hinting at the Peter Wilhousky arrangement of Battle Hymn of the Republic which was released 20 years prior.  This could be a subtle plea to have the same kind of independence that whites have.  The same format ensues with the verse “We’ll walk hand in hand”.  At the end of this verse, there is a vamp on “we shall”, declaring the stance to never stop fighting and the faith that it will pay off.  There is a turnaround at the end of the vamp which goes to the flat submediant.  The choir sings “we must, we shall, we will overcome!” as the song ends on a strong, resolute tonic chord.


Brighter DayHeritage of Faith

Next is Korea with the choir known as Heritage of Faith.  “Brighter Day” is a song by Kirk Franklin that was released on his 2002 album The Rebirth of Kirk Franklin.  This was Kirk Franklin’s first solo album, giving the word “rebirth” a musical connotation.  Kirk Franklin has also been through a lot, especially in his growing years.  He was born to a teenage mother and never knew his father.  At the age of fifteen, he witnessed one of his friends getting shot accidentally, and Kirk made an intent to turn his fairly rebellious life around.

In the original song, Kirk Franklin says “Young people, come on and stand up real quick” and “everybody come get your bounce on”.  Kirk Franklin’s contemporary style was initially criticized for sounding too secular.  But he has embraced such a style so that his music could reach people, so that gospel could gain the same type of respect as other genres, and so that young people could be engaged.  He once pointed out that Christian young people like the beat and feel of urban music, but complain that the lyrics are too nasty.  Because of artists like Kirk Franklin, younger people can ride in their cars and listen to music with a beat that talks about Jesus.

Heritage of Faith is a choir that was founded with singers in their twenties.  Surrounded by a country-wide culture of “bel canto” singing and CCM music, Heritage of Faith is regarded as Korea’s first authentic black gospel group.  Their cover of “Brighter Day” came out in 2020.  The choir translated “Brighter Day” into Korean along with other popular gospel songs for this album.  Everything else about the song’s music and instrumentation is virtually unchanged.  One of the choir’s members pumps the choir up as Kirk Franklin would with acclamations like “Come on, sing it!” and “Clap your hands!” The main line of the song is also heard in English: “It’s gonna be a brighter day.”

The lyrics are a direct conversation with God.  In the first verse, the choir says that when they take a second to think about God and all that He has done, it is hard to imagine life without Him.  The fact that Jesus died for us is so amazing, and it makes us want to love Him more.  The chorus says that because of God’s love, we are happy and secure and “it’s gonna be a brighter day”.  The second verse acknowledges the lower moments in life where all hope seemed to be gone.  But Jesus was the friend that kept us and never left us alone and showed us what true love was.  The bridge affirms how much joy Jesus brings us and how our lives have been changed as a result of His love.


For Every Mountain- Tokyo Mass Choir

The last song of my discussion is a cover by the Tokyo Mass Choir representing Japan.  “For Every Mountain” was written by Kurt Carr.  It first appeared on his 1997 album No One Else with Yvette Williams as the lead soloist and the Kurt Carr SingersThere was a six month hiatus between finishing the album and releasing it.  Carr said: “I needed to become ‘Kurt Carr’ and for the ministry to go where it is, and I couldn’t see it because I took my focus off of trusting God and put it on looking at the situation I was in.”  But once the album was released, it brought success.  “For Every Mountain” became a gospel choir standard.  Soon after, Kurt Carr and the Kurt Carr Singers began touring around the country and around the world which included Japan.

One day, Carr was sitting at the piano of West Angeles Church of God in Christ where he was the music director.  The entire chorus of “Every Mountain” came to him, after which he said he fell off the piano bench and worshipped for an hour.  Surely Kurt Carr’s time in Japan led to Tokyo Mass Choir adopting this song.  As of 2014, the choir had over 100 Japanese students.  Only a few were English speakers, and possibly even less were familiar with gospel music.  Richard Hartley, their director, trains the singers to learn the basics of the style.  He spoke to how liberating the music made them feel.  Tokyo Mass Choir does not have any albums, but they do travel to churches in the United States performing songs like this one to show what they have learned.

“For Every Mountain” begins with a solo in no set meter.  The use of rubato and improvisation enhances the reflective nature of the words as the soloist thinks about all the times God has blessed her.  The solo is almost like a cadenza except at the beginning.  The melody starts low, builds to the top of the soloist’s range, and comes back down.  The soloist continues to sing, listing all the ways God has blessed her as the choir responds each time: “That’s why I praise You.”  The choir comes together to repeat the line: “For this, I give You praise.”  The choir inverts to portray their excitement for all God has done as the soloist continues to improvise.

Then the main chorus comes in.  “For every mountain you’ve brought me over, for every trial you’ve seen me through; for every blessing, hallelujah! For this I give You praise.”  Trials can feel as big as mountains sometimes.  But God saw us through them, and He is worthy of praise.  This text repeats multiple times as if to say: “If I had 10,000 tongues, I couldn’t praise You enough.”  The range of the choral parts matches the intensity that the lyrics need.  The song starts in minor, modulates twice, and ends on a triumphant major chord.



In conclusion, I hope that this list of songs is helpful for those researching global gospel music.  With the help of books, articles, digital collections, and dissertations, I learned about all of these artists and was able to find recordings.  I had no idea how popular gospel music was around the world.  This research really broadened my perspective of the genre as well as my general knowledge.  A second reason I did this research was to inspire worship leaders and church music directors.  Many churches have commemorations like International Day or World Communion Day.  Incorporating music from other countries and cultures can help to make these celebrations more authentic.  Some global gospel songs are probably more suited for performance, but many others could be retained and sung by a congregation.  It could be as simple as the chorus of a song.  And even if it is just a normal worship service, including songs from other cultures broadens the congregation’s perspective.  It is also reflective of our increasingly diversifying country and God’s kingdom in the world to come.  A third reason I researched and discussed these songs was to encourage anyone who may be going through challenges in life.  All of these artists have had their fair share of trials, yet they found the strength to not only go on, but also to write these songs.  Through prayer, faith, and perseverance, we can also make it through.  As the Ladysmith Black Mambazo song says: “Tough times never last.  Strong people do.”



Guest Blogger Austin-Sinclair Harris is a graduate student from Houston, TX. He obtained a bachelor’s degree in Vocal Performance from the University of Texas at San Antonio and is set to obtain a master’s degree in Church Music from Baylor University in December 2020.

Guest Blogger Joslyn Henderson is a full-time graduate student at Truett Seminary and Baylor School of Music, having first earned her Bachelors in Music, Vocal Performance from Spelman College in Atlanta. 


Part I of this blog post can be found here.


Moving down into the 2000s, the following entries reflect gospel music as a global phenomenon. Though all of these songs were originally recorded by American artists, most of the performances referred to here display the broad impact of gospel music across the world. Beginning with Judy McAllister out of California and ending with Café of the Gate of Salvation out of Australia, let this music help to affirm that Black gospel music is as valuable in the canon of church music as anything else.


“Like the Dew” by Judith Christie McAllister

“Like the Dew” is one of Judith Christie McAllister’s most well-known songs, likely second only to “Oh Give Thanks” from the same Send Judah First album released in the year 2000. Though the song was also recorded by Juanita Bynum, most gospel music listeners would agree that Juanita Bynum is not a singer. The song’s writer is Tom Bynum, and the song follows a rather basic structural pattern. There is an A section that simply repeats, “like the dew in the morning, gently rest upon my heart” with two different melodies. The B section of the song is a chorus that repeats, “rest, Jesus” three times and ends with “rest.” The rest of the song I would say is a B prime section that uses the same chord that dominates the chorus as the background vocalists repeat verbs that Jesus will do: “rest, reign, rule, move…” This song began an era of praise and worship music released by Black artists (though the composers and writers may not be, as is the case here).

This was a song that was appropriate for use in the Black church that somewhat resembled the Contemporary Christian Music of the mainstream white congregations. Compared against Martin Nystrom’s “As the Deer” from the Wow Worship album that was released the same year, they are quite different sonically but follow the same basic structure. The song opens with an introduction of the melody by the artist and the ensemble joins. Though “Like the Dew” employs some really distinct rhythms, the chords are pretty much the same throughout. Contemporary Christian Music is built off of simplicity, and this song is just that. There is a simple opening phrase that is repeated, then the end is repeated as well.

This music was a bit of a contrast from what many contemporary gospel artists were doing in 2000. This was when Mary Mary was being introduced and when Kirk Franklin’s music was starting to shift and get “radical with [their] message.” While gospel music was changing form and shape, many artists held to the sound and feel of contemporary gospel music during this time. The sound of gospel music of the 1990s held over into the year 2000, but Judith Christie McAllister came with a sound that resembled something different. A classic in its own right, “Like the Dew” is now and continues to a favorite of the writer’s and many praise teams of yesterday and today.


“There Is No Way” by Ricky Dillard & New G

Chicago is generally credited as the birthplace of Black gospel music. Chicago is responsible for the careers of hometown heroes like Chicago Mass Choir, New Direction, Jonathan McReynolds, Milton Brunson and the Thompson Community Singers, Dexter Walker and Zion Movement and so many others. The one who has been consistently releasing music for the church choir since the late 1980s is still doing so up until today. Ricky Dillard grew up in Chicago and has been involved in gospel choirs since he was five years old. Dillard was an early member of the Thompson Community Singers under the direction of Milton Brunson. Percy Bady wrote “There Is No Way” and it was released on the Miracle Live album recorded in 1984. Ricky Dillard’s remake of this Brunson classic was well-received partially because of Nikki Ross being featured as a soloist. Ricky Dillard had the idea of reclaiming the church choir and this album did just that with a more traditional sound. Unplugged: The Way Church Used to Be was released in 2004 and “There Is No Way” was one of the featured songs.

Like the album title alludes, this music is intended for church. There was a sound on this album that did not necessarily fit in with the sound of the day. The early 2000s was a time for gospel music to sound electric, with many MIDI instruments and plug-ins. “There Is No Way” featured a Hammond organ and would be used for what might be called a traditional service today. Nikki Ross’s melismatic phrasing and virtuosic use of her instrument lets the listeners know the type of musician she is, and the type of singer she is. A pianist, the way that her ear can pick up on chord progressions and sing runs that fit the chord being played is something only attributable to the ear that she has as an instrumentalist. In comparison with the original 1984 recording, it is clear that Nikki Ross being an instrumentalist contributed to the way she interpreted this solo. Her being a part of this recording is what gives this track legendary status.



“Oh Happy Day” by the Soweto Gospel Choir

“Oh Happy Day” changed the world of gospel music in America, but the impact of the song traveled abroad as well. The song I found as I looked for music by the Soweto Gospel Choir was this classic, reimagined by this group of South African musicians released in 2005. The song was written by Edwin Hawkins and its most popular recording is the original recording from 1969. The song was also made popular by its feature in the 1993 film, Sister Act 2: Back In the Habit. As we have seen and experienced, “Oh Happy Day” was unlike the gospel music that came before it. This song being part of the Grammy award-winning Blessed album by the Soweto Gospel Choir is just about the same, in that it is distinctive from the other tracks, consisting of native African music genres, Negro spiritual, and even the South African national anthem. This is probably the only Black gospel track on this recording. It begins with a strong bassline. The other instruments come in slowly and the soloist introduces the melody, much like the original. The most noticeable harmonic change is the repetition of the I-IV progression. The progression is played three times before VII is introduced. This changes the tonic center before the return at the end of the verse with “washed my sins away” on the tonic chord. The syncopations differ and the song is rhythmically divergent at the end.

The Soweto Gospel Choir is a performance choir. The auditions for the group brought out over 600 people. They are not only a touring musical group but serve as unofficial ambassadors for the country of South Africa. This song was originally arranged for SGC for performance but can be used in church, with the understanding of difference from the original version.



“Show Up” by Heritage Mass Choir

The New Life Community Choir, led by John P. Kee, had a major influence on my childhood and upbringing. A couple of weekends ago, a certain sector of Twitter was embroiled in a hearty debate about hiring a youth choir director in 1998 and John P. Kee was one of three choices. Though not my first choice, John P. Kee is one of my favorite gospel artists. Imagine my delight in looking for a song by the Heritage Mass Choir and finding one of my favorite songs by one of my favorite artists. The Heritage Gospel Choir is in concert in 2009 doing their live recording singing John P. Kee’s “Show Up.” Though the original recording of this song was released in 1995, this song evidently transcends musical era.

The Heritage Gospel Choir recorded this song for their “The Gospel 2” album release and sticks very closely to the original composition. Translated for their context, this song can be used in worship or in concert (as it is here). I would not be surprised if the Heritage Mass Choir reached out to find the exact loops and musical instruments that were used on the original because this 2009 release sounds very similar to the 1995 original. Only because I see the musicians in the video, I am convinced that this is not a sing-along track. Musically, there are no differences between the original composition and this recording. Sonically, the music is being sung in Korean but the rhythms are also true to the original recording. Even the adlib is singing identically to what John P. Kee does. Near the end of the song, they sing, “show up” in English before ending with a repeat of the end of the B section. The soloist on this track does so much to add to the richness of the text written by John P. Kee by adding his South Korean flavor to it.



“Don’t Trouble the Water” by Café of the Gate of Salvation

Simon and Garfunkel originally recorded “Don’t Trouble the Water” back in 1970. Widely considered their biggest hit, it was no surprise that Aretha Franklin took the song as her own in 1971. She achieved major commercial success spending weeks on the top of the Billboard charts and even winning a Grammy for her “gospel-inspired” version. Written by Paul Simon, this song has been recorded by many other artists including Elvis Presley. It is no surprise then that Australia’s premier a cappella gospel choir took up this song to sing. With the help of Australian singer-songwriter, Diana Rouvas, Café of the Gate of Salvation records this song live at The Basement in the Sydney in November of 2017. The setting of this recording is in a pub with space for live music, so it is safe to say that this song is not intended for use in worship.

Quite frankly, the song is not necessarily a black gospel song in the traditional sense, in that it only alludes to God without naming God. It is assumed that the friend that is sung about in the song is a higher power or presence like Jesus, or even God. This live performance features a really skilled vocalist and a very present bassline. The rhythm in the bassline makes the song emblematic of its earlier recordings. The bassline also connects it to the blues genre that relied heavily on the bass guitar. Although blues takes root in the United States, this country’s music travels further to places that the originators may not visit. Though I am sure Simon and Garfunkel traveled to Sydney, Australia, I don’t imagine they envisioned a white, non-religious gospel choir in Australia singing one of its most famous rerecordings.




In conclusion, these songs might not have been nearly as memorable had another soloist been chosen to lead them. Any time I am asked to sing “I Love the Lord,” it is referred to as the Whitney Houston version. Before writing this paper, I did not know that there was a recording of “There Is No Way” that was released twenty years prior to Nikki Ross making it her song on Ricky Dillard’s album. Without the Strong Black Lead, Black gospel music, especially choir music of the genre, would not be what we know it as today. There is hardly a Sunday at my church where the choir sings and there isn’t someone up leading the song(s). The gospel soloist is crucial to the music because they introduce the melody, help the choir to know where to go next in the music, and add to the music in a way that cannot be done on an instrument. The contributions of gospel soloists are immense, changing the landscape of individual songs and of the genre as a whole. I refrain from mentioning that the choir benefits greatly from the soloist, but even the ensembles and the worship teams have much to gain from a power soloist in front. I believe that one day, a student will be writing about power gospel vocalists in the 21st century and mention me. This legacy given through Nikki Ross, Lecresia Campbell, Dorothy Morrison, Karen Clark-Sheard, and so many others is one I personally hope to carry.


Resources Mentioned

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  • Bernard, A. J. (2011, Aug). Rejoice and sound the trumpet for the glorious return of Judith Christie McAllister. New York Beacon Retrieved from Accessed 16 Feb 2019.
  • “Bridge Over Troubled Water” With choir “CAFE OF THE GATE OF SALVATION” (2017). Accessed 25 Mar 2019.
  • “Carlton Pearson.” Contemporary Black Biography, vol. 140, Gale, 2017. Biography In Context, Accessed 8 Apr 2019.
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  • Ely, Gordon. “Soweto Gospel Choir: Blessed.” Billboard, 28 Jan. 2006, p. 54. General Reference Center GOLD, Accessed 23 Feb 2019.
  • Horn, David. Popular Music, vol. 13, no. 3, 1994, pp. 366–369. JSTOR, Accessed 7 May 2019.
  • Hunter, C. (2016). The politics of real spirituality in gospel music discourse and practice (Order No. 10120465). Available from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global. (1796054276). Retrieved from ntid=7014. Accessed 5 Feb 2019.
  • Jackson, Irene. “Rosetta Tharpe.” Encyclopedia of African-American Culture and History, Macmillan Reference USA, 2006. Biography In Context, Accessed 5 Feb 2019.
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  • MacSwain, Robert, and Taylor Worley, eds. Theology, Aesthetics, and Culture: Responses to the Work of David Brown. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012. Oxford Scholarship Online, 2013. doi: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199646821.001.0001. Accessed 6 May 2019.
  • “Ricky Dillard.” Contemporary Black Biography, vol. 134, Gale, 2016. Biography In Context, Accessed 6 May 2019.
  • “Rosetta Tharpe.” Contemporary Black Biography, vol. 65, Gale, 2008. Biography In Context, Accessed 7 Feb 2019.
  • “Soweto Gospel Choir ambassadors of the ‘African spirit’.” The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, 18 Dec. 2008. Opposing Viewpoints in Context, Accessed 25 Feb 2019.